History of Transportation in the United States

1 Transportation

Transportation planning involves the designing, management and implementation of transportation systems for urban living. It includes a range of transportation technologies such as rail, streetcar, car and pedestrian access. Key factors include urban form, land use as well as equity concerns and environmental impact statements. Emerging Transportation technologies such as autonomous vehicles, and ridesharing are also being considered in today’s transportation planning.

Urban transportation planning serves as a vital component of urban development, as it connects the population to jobs, education, trade, and facilities effectively. Efficient planning is crucial to manage the transportation system and reduce the negative environmental impact of transportation. The evolution of urban transportation has been marked by milestones like the suburbanization and the freeway revolt of the 1950s to the 70s, changing the traditional urban form and streetscape with the dominance of the automobile.

Today, increasing focus is on sustainability in transportation planning with individual transportation options like user taxes and vehicle registration. Critical issues include transportation system management, equity issues, roadway and freeway planning, fuel consumption, and transportation workforce management.

Objectives

  1. Recognize the impacts of mid-20th century highway designs on U.S. cities
  2. Learn about the current issues in transportation planning

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Key Takeaway:

  • Transportation plays a vital role in urban planning: Urban transportation has always been an intricate part of urban planning. The efficient transportation system enables greater mobility, enhances connectivity, creates economic opportunities, and improves the quality of life in cities.
  • The key issues in current transportation planning: Equitable access to transport facilities, environmental concerns, transportation system management, and workforce management are the key issues in current urban transportation planning. It is necessary to address these issues to form an efficient, sustainable transportation system in urban areas.

A Brief History of Urban Transportation Planning

Urban transportation planning has undergone significant changes throughout the history of the United States. From horse-drawn carriages to modern superhighways, the evolution of urban transportation has been influenced by population growth, technological advancements, and societal needs. The earliest urban transportation plans focused on solving congestion issues with new roadways, while later plans incorporated multiple transportation modes such as buses, light rails, and subways. This expansion of transportation options has led to increased accessibility and efficiency for urban residents.

Notably, transportation planners have also prioritized equity and environmental concerns in recent years. Transportation planning initiatives such as Vision Zero aim to reduce traffic fatalities and improve safety for all modes of transportation. Additionally, efforts are being made to encourage sustainable transportation options such as biking and walking, to reduce carbon emissions and promote a healthier environment.

In the mid-20th century, the advent of the interstate highway system revolutionized urban transportation. However, it also led to the displacement of communities and the widening of racial and socio-economic disparities. These issues continue to be a challenge with current transportation planning initiatives striving for more equitable outcomes.

 

Federal Highway Acts (1921-1988)

The acts passed by the US Government from 1921-1988 regarding highways and related rules paved the way for a robust transportation planning system. These federal highway acts aimed to improve road infrastructure, safety, and connectivity within the country.

The Federal-Aid Road Act of 1916 established funding for state highway construction; later programs enabled states to receive direct aid, thereby increasing the federal role in transportation planning.

The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, also known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act, was a landmark piece of legislation that authorized the construction of a national system of interstate highways in the United States. The act was signed into law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on June 29, 1956.It also mandated that urban areas with populations over 50,000 create long-range transportation plans. As a result, Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) emerged as crucial entities in such decision-making processes.

Here are some of the key provisions of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956:

  • Authorized the construction of a 41,000-mile (66,000 km) system of interstate highways.
  • Established the Highway Trust Fund, which is a dedicated fund that is used to finance the construction and maintenance of the interstate highway system.
  • Provided funding for the construction of the interstate highway system.
  • Required the interstate highway system to be built to high standards of safety and efficiency.

 

 

Urban Renewal

As part of the urban renewal program, the federal government also provided funding for transportation infrastructure projects. This included the construction of highways, which were seen as a way to improve access to and from urban areas. However, the construction of highways often had the same negative impact on low-income and minority communities as urban renewal. Highways were often built through these communities, leading to the displacement of residents and the destruction of homes and businesses., The use of urban renewal funds to build highways was controversial at the time and is still debated today. Some argue that the highways were necessary for economic growth and improved transportation, while others point to the negative impact on communities and the environment. 

Atlanta

89% of the roughly 14,000 people displaced in Atlanta because of freeway construction and “urban renewal” were people of color.

For example, I-85 went through the affluent African-American neighborhood of Sweet Auburn, once called “the richest Negro street in the world” by Fortune magazine.  

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If you are interested in reading more about Auburn Avenue, read “Remembering Sweet Auburn Before The Expressway: What Nostalgia Reveals About The Limits Of Postwar Liberalism

The junction between I-75 and I-20 wiped out hundreds of homes and businesses in the integrated, working-class neighborhoods of Mechanicsville and Summerhill. Meanwhile, the automobile consumed Downtown Atlanta. Block after block was demolished and replaced with parking, taking hundreds of historic buildings along the way. The formerly dense grid and streetcar network was reduced to an isolated series of towers surrounded by a sea of parking.

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Treme, New Orleans, Louisiana

In 1966, French Quarter residents averted the proposed construction of an elevated expressway through their neighborhood. The primarily African-American Tremé neighborhood was not so privileged. Despite staunch opposition from the community, the Claiborne Expressway was built over Claiborne Avenue, the much-beloved main boulevard and commercial backbone for Tremé. 

 

 

Robert Moses

Robert Moses was a prominent figure in the urban planning and transportation history of New York City. He served as the city’s Parks Commissioner and was responsible for the construction of numerous public works projects, including highways, bridges, and public parks. Moses was known for his authoritarian style and his ability to get things done, often at the expense of local communities and neighborhoods.

 

 

Moses was a strong advocate for the use of automobiles and highways, and he believed that urban renewal required the demolition of older, run-down neighborhoods in favor of modern, high-rise buildings and open spaces.

Moses’ impact on New York City was significant. He was responsible for the construction of many of the city’s major highways, including the Long Island Expressway and the Cross Bronx Expressway. These highways were designed to connect the city’s suburbs to the city center, but they also had a significant impact on the city’s neighborhoods. Many communities were divided by the highways, and the construction of the highways often led to the displacement of residents and the destruction of homes and businesses.

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Image: Cross Bronx Expressway

For example the Cross Bronx Expressway was the very first large-scale urban freeway built in the US.  Over 60,000 were directly displaced by the construction of the Cross Bronx.  Before the highway, the neighborhoods through which Moses would build the Cross Bronx were “among the most racially integrated in the country,” with large populations of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, Irish and Italian Immigrants, (and after WWII) Puerto Ricans, and African-Americans.”

Moses was also responsible for the construction of numerous public parks, including Jones Beach State Park and Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. These parks were designed to provide recreational opportunities for the city’s residents, but they were also used as a tool for social engineering. Moses believed that public parks should be designed to promote certain types of behavior and discourage others, and he often used park design to achieve his social goals.

It should be noted, that people believe Robert Moses famously built bridges too short for city buses as a way to keep Black and Puerto Rican families from being able to access Long Island’s beach towns.  This was a claim in Robert Caro’s book The Power Brooker but Thomas J. Campanella, Planning Historian at Cornell, says its a little more complicated.

Read “Robert Moses and His Racist Parkway, Explained” by Thomas Campanella

 

Public Participation

Due to the lack of public input and the destruction of communities, state and local agencies must now work with MPOs to ensure that transportation systems align with land use policies, social equity goals, and environmental sustainability principles. To further strengthen this multidisciplinary approach to urban planning, it is vital to incorporate community participation at all levels of decision-making. This includes involving local stakeholders in identifying their preferences and priorities for infrastructure improvements while ensuring inclusivity and equity in decision-making processes. Promoting public awareness through outreach campaigns can help build consensus among diverse interest groups while ensuring transparency throughout all stages of transportation planning.

 

Key Issues in Current Transportation Planning

As transportation plays a vital role in modern society, it is necessary to analyze the challenges and potential solutions for effective and sustainable transportation planning. One of the significant concerns in transportation planning is optimizing the use of public and private transportation systems to facilitate seamless connectivity and reduce traffic congestion. Additionally, the integration of innovative technological advancements like big data analysis and electric vehicles is crucial for creating efficient and eco-friendly transportation infrastructure. Ensuring equitable access to transportation and addressing the socioeconomic disparities in urban and rural areas is also a top priority.

To overcome these challenges, transportation planners must adopt a comprehensive approach that considers the diverse needs of users and stakeholders. Intelligent transportation systems and demand-responsive transit services can be utilized to enhance operational efficiency and reduce unnecessary congestion and emissions. Furthermore, balancing investment in public transportation with measures to promote cycling and walking can help decrease reliance on cars and foster healthy and sustainable communities. Encouraging multi-modal transportation and implementing policies that encourage the use of fuel-efficient vehicles can collectively contribute to reducing the carbon footprint and creating a more sustainable future for cities.

The success of transportation planning hinges on striking a balance between environmental sustainability, social equity, and economic growth. Making informed decisions that consider the long-term ramifications of transportation choices is critical for ensuring that transportation infrastructure aligns with the ever-changing needs of society.

Equity issues

One of the greatest challenges that urban transportation planning faces is equity. Providing equal access to transportation options across diverse communities is essential for ensuring social inclusion and economic prosperity. This challenge involves addressing a range of issues related to affordability, accessibility, safety, and public health.

In order to achieve transportation equity, urban planners need to reduce disparities in access to public transit and other modes of transport by promoting affordable housing near public transit hubs. Additionally, they must ensure safe and accessible walking and biking infrastructure, especially for those who cannot afford a car or suffer from mobility impairments.

Moreover, this challenge requires an understanding of how systemic inequalities such as race, income and geography impact transportation policy and investment decisions. There is a need for policy interventions that prioritize low-income communities of color who have historically been underserved by transportation investments.

 

Sprawl

Urban sprawl is a pattern of urban growth characterized by low-density, car-dependent development.

 

Sprawl is often seen as a negative development because it can have a number of negative environmental impacts, including:

  • Increased air pollution: Sprawl leads to increased car use, which in turn leads to increased air pollution. This is because cars emit pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. These pollutants can contribute to respiratory problems, heart disease, and cancer.
  • Increased water pollution: Sprawl can also lead to increased water pollution. This is because the development of large areas of land for housing, businesses, and roads can lead to the disruption of natural drainage patterns. This can lead to flooding and the contamination of waterways with runoff from roads, parking lots, and lawns.
  • Loss of open space: Sprawl can lead to the loss of open space. This is because it requires the development of large areas of land for housing, businesses, and roads. This can lead to the loss of natural habitats, such as forests, wetlands, and grasslands.
  • Increased energy consumption: Sprawl can lead to increased energy consumption. This is because it requires people to drive longer distances to get to work, school, and other destinations. This can lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, which contribute to climate change.

Sprawl can also have a number of negative social and economic impacts, such as:

  • Increased traffic congestion: Sprawl can lead to increased traffic congestion. This is because it requires people to drive longer distances to get to work, school, and other destinations. This can lead to lost productivity, increased stress, and decreased air quality.
  • Decreased sense of community: Sprawl can lead to a decreased sense of community. This is because it can make it difficult for people to get to know their neighbors and to participate in community activities. This can lead to feelings of isolation and loneliness.
  • Increased cost of living: Sprawl can lead to an increased cost of living. This is because it requires the construction of new roads, schools, and other infrastructure. This can lead to higher taxes and higher housing costs.

There are a number of things that can be done to reduce the negative environmental impacts of sprawl, such as:

  • Encouraging compact development: Compact development is characterized by high-density, mixed-use development. This type of development can help to reduce car use and increase walking and biking.
  • Investing in public transportation: Investing in public transportation can help to reduce car use and make it easier for people to get around without a car.
  • Protecting open space: Protecting open space can help to preserve natural habitats and reduce the amount of land that is developed.
  • Encouraging alternative transportation: Encouraging alternative transportation, such as walking, biking, and public transportation, can help to reduce car use and improve air quality.

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Last Mile Problem

The last mile problem in transportation planning refers to the difficulty of getting people from a transportation hub, such as a train station or bus stop, to their final destination. This can be a challenge for people who live in areas that are not well-served by public transportation, or for people who have disabilities or other mobility challenges.

There are a number of factors that contribute to the last mile problem. One factor is the distance between transportation hubs and final destinations. In some cases, the distance may be too great to walk or bike, and people may not have access to a car. Another factor is the lack of safe and accessible pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure. This can make it difficult and dangerous for people to walk or bike between transportation hubs and their final destinations.

The last mile problem can have a number of negative consequences. It can make it difficult for people to use public transportation, which can lead to increased traffic congestion and air pollution. It can also make it difficult for people to participate in activities that are important to them, such as work, school, and social events.

There are a number of solutions to the last mile problem. One solution is to improve the accessibility and connectivity of public transportation. This can be done by increasing the number of transportation hubs, reducing the distance between transportation hubs and final destinations, and making public transportation more affordable. Another solution is to improve the infrastructure for walking and biking. This can be done by building more sidewalks and bike lanes, and by making existing sidewalks and bike lanes safer and more accessible.

 

 

Five Facts About the History of Urban Transportation in the United States:

  • ✅ The first horse-drawn streetcar began operating in New York City in 1832. 
  • ✅ The first subway system in the United States was built in Boston in 1897. 
  • ✅ The first automobile was introduced in the United States in 1893, but it wasn’t until the 1920s that cars became a dominant form of transportation. (
  • ✅ The creation of the interstate highway system in 1956 revolutionized transportation in the United States and led to increased suburbanization. 
  • ✅ Public transportation ridership has been on the decline in recent years, with cars now dominating urban transportation.

FAQs about History Of Urban Transportation In The United States

 

What were some of the major transportation innovations in US cities?

Throughout the history of urban transportation in the United States, there have been many significant innovations. In the early 20th century, electric trolleys replaced horse-drawn buses and streetcars, and subways began to be built in cities like New York and Boston. In the mid-20th century, highways and freeways were built, leading to the rapid expansion of suburban areas. Today, many cities are focusing on building bike lanes and pedestrian-friendly infrastructure to reduce traffic and improve the quality of life for residents.

How did transportation impact US cities and their development?

Transportation has played a significant role in the development of US cities. In the early 20th century, the availability of reliable public transportation allowed people to live farther from city centers, leading to the rise of suburban areas. Highways and freeways built in the mid-20th century further facilitated suburban development and allowed people to commute into the city more easily. Today, transportation remains a crucial factor in the growth and development of US cities.

What were some of the challenges faced by urban transportation systems?

Throughout US history, urban transportation systems have faced many challenges. Early transportation systems relied on horses, which were unreliable and often led to traffic congestion. The development of electric trolleys and subways was often hindered by lack of funding and political opposition. In the mid-20th century, the construction of highways and freeways created new challenges, including increased air pollution and the displacement of communities in their path.

What are some current issues facing urban transportation?

Today, many US cities are grappling with issues related to urban transportation. Traffic congestion remains a significant problem in many areas, leading to increased air pollution and longer commute times for drivers. Public transit systems face challenges related to funding and maintenance, and bike lanes and pedestrian infrastructure are often limited in many cities. Additionally, new technologies such as ride-sharing services and autonomous vehicles present new challenges to existing transportation systems.

How have urban transportation systems evolved over time?

Urban transportation systems have evolved significantly over time. From the early days of horse-drawn buses and trolleys to the construction of subways and highways in the mid-20th century, transportation systems have become more efficient and accessible. Today, cities are exploring new modes of transportation, such as bike sharing programs and self-driving cars, in an effort to reduce traffic and improve the quality of life for residents.

Quick Check

What country leads the world in suburbanization

Korea

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The United States

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France

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Mexico

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